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Operating System

Operating system


👉What is operating system?

Operating system is a system software

An operating system (OS) is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program manages all of the other application program in a computer

The application programs make use of the operating system by making requests for services through a defined application programming interface (API). In addition, users can interact directly with the operating system through a user interface, such as a command-line interface (CLI) or a graphical UI 

👉What is a Kernel?

The kernel is the central component of a computer operating systems.

Kernel is a heart of operating system

Kernel is used to  manage the communication between the software and the hardware.

A Kernel is at the nucleus of a computer.

The Kernel is responsible for low-level tasks such as disk management, memory management, task management, etc. It provides an interface between the user and the hardware components of the system. When a process makes a request to the Kernel, then it is called System Call.

👉Features of Kernel

  1. Low-level scheduling of processes
  2. Inter-process communication
  3. Process synchronization
  4. Context switching

👉Functions of a Kernel

the functions of a Kernel are as follows:

Resource Management: It is the duty of a Kernel to share the resources between various process in such a way that there is uniform access to the resources by every process.

Memory Management: Every process needs some memory space. So, memory must be allocated and deallocated for its execution. All these memory management is done by a Kernel.

File management:- It manages all the file-related activities such as organization storage, retrieval, naming, sharing, and protection of files.

Device Management: The peripheral devices connected in the system are used by the processes. So, the allocation of these devices is managed by the Kernel.

Security:- Security module protects the data and information of a computer system against malware threat and authorized access.

Process management:- Process management helps OS to create and delete processes. It also provides mechanisms for synchronization and communication among processes.

Memory management:- Memory management module performs the task of allocation and de-allocation of memory space to programs in need of this resources.

Device Management: Device management keeps tracks of all devices. This module also responsible for this task is known as the I/O controller. It also performs the task of allocation and de-allocation of the devices.

I/O System Management: One of the main objects of any OS is to hide the peculiarities of that hardware devices from the user.

Networking: A distributed system is a group of processors which do not share memory, hardware devices, or a clock. The processors communicate with one another through the network.

Secondary-Storage Management: Systems have several levels of storage which includes primary storage, secondary storage, and cache storage. Instructions and data must be stored in primary storage or cache so that a running program can reference it.

Command interpreter: This module is interpreting commands given by the and acting system resources to process that commands.

👉Types of Operating system

ü  Batch Operating System

ü  Multitasking/Time Sharing OS

ü  Multiprocessing OS

ü  Real Time OS

ü  Distributed OS

ü  Network OS

ü  Mobile OS

👉The advantage of using Operating System

  1. Allows you to hide details of hardware by creating an abstraction
  2. Easy to use with a GUI
  3. Acts as an inter mediator between all hardware's and software's of the system
  4. Operating System acts as an intermediary among applications and the hardware components
  5. Offers an environment in which a user may execute programs/applications
  6. The operating system must make sure that the computer system convenient to use
  7. It provides the computer system resources with easy to use format

👉Disadvantages of using Operating System

  1. If any issue occurs in OS, you may lose all the contents which have been stored in your system
  2. Operating system's software is quite expensive for small size organization which adds burden on them. Example Windows
  3. It is never entirely secure as a threat can occur at any time

👉Flavors of Operating Systems

👉Non-Unix Operating Systems

    • DOS
    • Windows 3.11, 95, 98, NT, 2000, 7, 8, 10(Microsoft)
    • Novell Netware
    • MacOS (Apple)
  • 👉Unix OS

    • Sun Solaris
    • Digital Unix
    • IBM AIX
    • HP-UX
    • SCO unix
  • 👉Linux OS
    • Ubantu
    • Redhat
    • CentOS
👉Difference Between Linux and Windows





Linux is Open Source and is free OS

Windows is not open source and free OS


Linux is highly secure as compared to Windows.

Windows provides less security as compared to Linux.


Linux uses monolithic kernel.

Windows uses micro kernel.


Linux file system is case sensitive.

Windows file system is case insensitive.


Linux uses forward slash as path separator between directories.

Windows uses backward slash as a path separator.


Efficiency is Effective running

Lower than Linux


Windows has different drives like C: D: E

There are no drives in Linux

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